April 12, 2016

8. Corn Borer (Ostrinia furnacalis)

Symptoms of attack:

  • Causing cracks and broken cornstalks.
  • Butterfly as the mother of pest Ostrinia furnacalis appear in the crop at night, between pk. 20:00 until pk. 22:00 and lay their eggs on these hours. Female butterfly lays her eggs as many as 300-500 grains on the third leaf. Yellowish-white Telut put under surface of the leaves in groups. Usually covered by fur.
  • After 4-5 days the eggs hatch, the caterpillars will fit into the trunk after the age of 7-10 days through the bud and often damaging panicles not yet come out. Furthermore worm gnawing into the shaft and mostly on the stem segment, and after the expiration digereknya also segments on the bottom. Age caterpillar 18-41 days
  • Symptoms of caterpillar attacks young, leaf sign visible white lines bites.
  • The next attack appears hoist their holes on the trunk that accompanied the auger brown flour. If the corn stalks broken, the plant will die.
  • Host plants other than corn are millet, Panicum viride, spinach and weeds Blumea lacera.

How to control:

  • By way of crop rotation with crops that are not a host.
  • Plants attacked cut and buried in the ground or given to livestock.
  • Eliminating other host plants growing between the two planting time.
  • Cleaning the grass
  • Chemical means, control is carried out before the worms get into the trunk. Some declared effective insecticides are: Azodrin 15 WSC, Nogos 50 EC, Hostation 40 EC, 20 EC Karvos

9. Peach aphids (Myzus persicae)

Symptoms of attack:

  • Peach aphids had a puncture suction tool, usually found atop the lice and young leaves of pepper plants.
  • Suck the liquid leaves, buds, flower stalks and other plant parts so that leaves so little curly and brlang yellowish color, wither and eventually die.
  • Wind through this infestation spread to the garden area.
  • The effect of these mites cause stunted plants, stunted growth, smaller leaves.
  • These ticks secrete a sweet liquid that can cover the leaf surface will be covered with sooty black fungus that inhibits the process of photosynthesis. Fleas are also taking part in the spread of the virus.

How to control:   

  • Control by planting crops trap (trap crop) around the garden like corn chili.
  • Control with chemicals such as Curacron 500 EC, Pegasus 500 SC, Decis 2.5 EC, 40 EC Hostation, Orthene 75 SP.

10. Thrips (Thrips parvispinus)

Symptoms of attack:

  • The leaves that the liquid sucked into the wrinkles and curved upward.
  • Thrips often nest in flower, it also mediates the spread of the virus. should be avoided planting chili in a large scale onshore one overlay.

How to control:

  • With crop rotation is the first step to decide the development of Thrips.
  • Set traps yellow paper IATP (Insect Trap Adhesive Paper), by way of coiled and hung as high as 15 cm of shoots of plants.
  • Control with insecticides wisely. Which can dilih among others Agrimec 18 EC, Dicarzol 25 SP, Mesurol 50 WP, Confidor 200 SL, Pegasus 500 SC, SC Regent 50, Curacron 500 EC, Decis 2.5 EC, Hostathion 40EC, Mesurol 50 WP. Spraying dose adjusted to the label.

11. Armyworm (Spodoptera litura)

Symptoms of attack:

  • Leaf perforated, perforated sign armyworm attack. If allowed plants could bare bones or leaves alone.
  • He also takes up the hollow result chilli fruit can not sell.

How to control:

  • By collecting eggs and caterpillars kill him.
  • Maintain the cleanliness of the garden from weeds and plant waste into hiding places of pests and crop rotation.
  • UGRATAS a trap moths, by the way was added to bottles of mineral water ½ liter by the small hole as a means of entry of the male butterfly. Because UGRATAS is a sexual aphrodisiac in adult male insects and very effective to be used as a trap.
  • If forced to overcome armyworm attacks with Decis 2.5 EC, Curacron 500 EC, Orthene 75 Sp, Match 50 EC, 40 EC Hostathion, spraying chemicals in a way that does not occur alternately immunity to pests.

12. The fruit fly (Dacus ferrugineus Coquillet or Dacus dorsalis Hend)

Symptoms of attack:

  • These flies pierce the base of chilies that there are tiny black dots visible puncture marks fruit flies to enter the egg.
  • Fruits are attacked will be patches of rounded, then rot and hollow.
  • After the eggs hatch so the larvae (maggots) and live in the fruit until the fruit to fall and rot larvae will come out to the ground and a week later transformed into the young flies.

How to control:

  • Perform crop rotation to break the chain of development of flies.
  • Collect all the chilies are attacked and destroyed.
  • Control with methyl eugenol traps are very effective by introducing methyl eugenol in the cotton into bottles of mineral water that has been spread with oil, or given water. Hang the trap in the garden verges.
  • Chemical control can be done by spraying Buldok, Lannate, Tamaron, Curacron 500 EC.

13. Grasshopper

Symptoms of attack:

  • Symptoms of attack is similar to the locust pest caterpillars, which leaves become ragged.

How to control:

  • These pests can be overcome with the capture manually.
  • Catch-winged grasshoppers are not yet or when it is morning and dewy locusts usually can not fly with wet wings.

14. Tick shield

Symptoms of attack:

  • These pests attack the leaves.
  • These ticks are usually found colonies formed a line at the bone leaves.

How to control:

  • Can be fixed using a systemic insecticide with the active ingredient acephate.

15. Spider mite

Symptoms of attack:

  • Spider mites suck the liquid in the plant.
  • This pest attacks resulted in yellow leaves, and later appeared patches on the part that sucked the liquid.
  • Spider mite attack on a large can lead to leaf out and the plant dies. Spider mite is more resistant to insecticides.

How to control:

  • Suggested uses akarisida.

16. Fungus gnats

Symptoms of attack:

  • Is an insect that is shaped like a mosquito black.
  • The larvae are shaped like worms live in the planting medium and fine roots often eat plants.
  • Adult fungus gnats damage the flower sheath, with the emergence of symptoms of black spots on flower sheath.

How to control:

  •  In still a larval phase, the handling is done by sprinkling Nematisida as Furadan G into the planting medium.
  • While the adult stage, carried out by spraying insecticides.

17. The worms burrow (Radhopolus similis)

Symptoms of attack:

  • Sucking liquid on plant roots.
  • Plant pests are slow growing and the plants become stunted and produce small flowers.

How to control:

  • To overcome such Furadan used Nematisida G sprinkled the growing media according to the rules contained in the packaging.
  • Application of pesticides on ornamental plants should be used wisely, considering the negative impact that can be generated. Since most of the plants placed adjacent to humans, as well the consideration for the possibility of insects are becoming increasingly resistant to the insecticides used.

18. Diseases Damping Sprouts (Phytium spp, Rhizoctonia and Sclerotium sp sp.)

Symptoms of attack:

  • This disease attacks the tobacco.
  • In general strike in the nursery, the seeds notched base attack symptoms such as pinch, foul, brown and finally collapsed seedlings.
  • The disease usually attacks the area with a temperature of 240C, humidity above 85% poor drainage of high rainfall and soil pH from 5.2 to 8.5.

How to control:

  • This disease can be resolved by spacing the nursery.
  • Disinfect the soil before sowing seed or spraying nursery.
  • Immersion seed before planting with a fungicide netalaksil 3 g / liter of water Mankozep (2-3 g / liter of water), Benomil 2-3 g / liter of water and Propanokrab Hydrochloride 1-2 ml / l of water.

19. Lanas disease (caused by the fungus Phytophthora nicotianae var Breda de Haan)

Symptoms of attack:

  • This disease attacks the tobacco.
  • Plants whose leaves are still green droop suddenly withered and died, the base of the stem near the soil surface is brown rot and split if the plant pith sectional.
  • The leaves droop and then yellowing plants withered and died.
  • Symptomatic necrosis dark colored light (concentric) and after processing the color is more brown than normal leaves.

How to control:

  • Perform tillage mature sanitation, improve drainage, the use of manure that has been cooked.
  • At least 2 years of crop rotation and the use of resistant varieties such as Coker 48, Coker 206 NC85, DB 102, Speight G-28, Ky 317, Ky 340, Oxford 1, and Vesta 33.
  • By spraying fungicide on the base of the stem by using a fungicide Mankozeb 2-3 g / liter of water, Benomil 2 -3 g / liter of water, Propanokarb Hydrochloride 1-2 ml of water and slurry bordo 1-2%.

20. Crackers Disease Virus (Tabacco Leaf Corl Virus = TLCV).

Symptoms of attack:

  • This disease attacks the tobacco.
  • The leaves look a bit wrinkled, curled up leaf edges, spine curved leaf, leaves thicken, or until the leaves wrinkled and very rude.

How to control:

  • Eradicate the vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) with insecticide dimetoat or imedakloprid.

21. Lice Leaf Tobacco (Myzus persicae)

Symptoms of attack:

  • Fleas are damaging the tobacco plant.
  • Sucking liquids plant leaves, attacked in nurseries and plantations, so that plant growth is inhibited.
  • These ticks produce honey dew that causes the leaves become sticky and covered with black fungus.
  • Aphids are physically affect the color, aroma and texture and will further reduce the quality and price.
  • In Khemis aphids reduce the content alkoloid, sugar, sugar ratio alkoloid and maningkatkan total leaf nitrogen.
  • Aphids can cause losses of up to 50%, aphids can cause a loss of 22-28% in flue-cured tobacco.

How to control:

  • Reducing N fertilization and spraying insecticide ie when greater than 10% of the crop was found colonies of ticks tobacco (each colony around 50 head lice).
  • Pesticides were used that kind imidaklorid.

22. The cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella)

Symptoms of attack:

  • Cocoa pods attacked a length of 8 cm, with symptoms of early ripening, ie yellow, green or yellow striped orange and there are holes former hoist out the larvae.
  • At the time of split fruit seeds stick together and colored black, seeds do not grow and become smaller in size. In addition, fruit when shaken not ring.

How to control:

  • Quarantine; namely to prevent the introduction of the cocoa plant material from the stricken area PBK
  • Pruning shape with a height limit of 4m maximum plant canopy making it easier to control and harvest
  • Set the harvest method, which is to harvest as much as possible (7 day) and fruit included in sacks while the rind and the remnants of the harvest dibenam
  • Menyelubungan fruit (kondomisasi), how to us- ing plastic bag and in this way can suppress the attack 95-100%. In addition the system can also prevent insect and rat Helopeltis
  • Chemical means: with deltamethrin (Decis 2.5 EC), cyhalothrin (Matador 25 EC), Buldok 25 EC with a spray volume of 250 l / ha and a frequency of 10 days.

23. Ladybug sucking fruit (Helopeltis spp)

Symptoms of attack:

  • Cocoa pods attacked by patchy concave blackish brown with patches of relatively small size (2-3 mm) and is located at the end of the fruit tends.
  • The attack on the young fruit causing fruit dry up and die, but if the fruit is growing steadily, the fruit skin surface cracked and deformed.
  • When the attack on the shoots or branches, causing leaves to wilt, then fall withered branches dry up and wither.

How to control:

  • Effective control and efficient to date with insecticide once the area is limited that when the attack Helopeltis <15% whereas when attack> 15% sprayer’s done thoroughly.
  • Controlled biologically, using black ants. Ant nest made of leaves dry cocoa or palm leaves laid over jorquette and spread with sugar.

24. Fruit rot disease (Phytophthora palmivora)

Symptoms of attack:

  • Cocoa pods are attacked stained dark brown, usually starts from the tip or the base of the fruit.
  • Disseminated through sporangium-borne or water splashes of rain, and the disease usually develops rapidly in the garden that has high rainfall with humid conditions.

How to control:

  • Sanitation garden, with all the rotten fruit picking and membenamnya 30 cm deep in the ground.
  • Technical culture, namely by setting shade trees and do the pruning of its plants so that the humidity in the garden will go down.
  • Chemical means, namely spraying the fruit with fungicides such as: Sandoz, Cupravit Cobox, etc. Spraying is done with a frequency of 2 weeks; (4) the use of clones resistant to pests / diseases such as DRC clone 16, Sca 6, ICS 6 and hybrid DR1.

25. Antraknosa (Cause fungus C. capsici)

Symptoms of attack:

  • Attacking on chilli plants
  • Their spots are somewhat shiny, slightly set and watery.
  • Over time these rotten will widen to form concentric circles.
  • In a short time the fruits will change to dark brown and rot.
  • The explosion of the disease is very rapid during the rainy season.
  • Its spread not only through touch alone among plants but can also be due to splashing water, wind, or through a vector.

How to control:

  • With a good technical culture.
  • Can also do the cleaning or disposal of parts of plants that have been attacked from spreading.
  • In addition to cultivating a good way, when the seed selection we have to do a selective basis.
  • It is advisable to plant chilli seeds that have disease resistance pathek.
  • In chemistry, the control of this disease can be sprayed with a systemic fungicide whose active ingredient is mixed with triadianefon contact fungicide active ingredient copper hydroxide as Kocide 54WDG, or the active ingredient Mankozeb like Victory 80WP.
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